Kessels, J. (2001). Industrious Academia: Universities join forces with knowledge intensive organisations in dual programmes.

Academic education’s dual training system inevitably enlarges the scope of education in a society that is becoming a knowledge economy. Cooperation between university and the workplace, also in education, is preferable to upholding an isolated academic ideal.

Such educational innovation, however, raises questions about maintaining the programme’s academic standards, the employer’s non-academic interests and academic training’s occupational orientation.

Supporters and opponents embrace views that range from regarding dual academic training as a necessary condition for revitalizing universities and sincere concern about relinquishing the last remnant of academic freedom.