Scholten, Astrid (2007). Exploration of portfolio characteristics for the recognition of prior learning
A study on the identification, assessment and recognition of actual competencies of highly-skilled immigrants. The multiple case study showed that in practice the distinction between an assessment protfolio and a development portfolio could not be found. The completed portfolios were descriptive documents that gave insights into the prior learning experiences of the candiDatum. Transparent assessment standards were lacking, or not understood, and guidance was often poor. CandiDatums are not used to cognitive processes like self-assessment and reflective thinking. Traditional international credential evaluation and content-based curricula inhibit a competency-based assessment of prior learning. Foreign professionals are not allowed to work during their assessment period, which is an obstacle for collecting proof of evidence for their competencies. Highly skilled immigrants who participate in a portfolio development process gradually become aware of their responsibilities and the need for lifelong learning skills.